DIO offers two prizes, $1000 each. These will be awarded at opportunity instead of rigidly per year. (I.e., their pace will be up to judges.) Two international panels of highly qualified judges, will decide future recipients. See below.
Dennis Rawlins, DIO's Publisher, has already awarded the initial (2004) ones, but will not even have a vote in future DIO-prize-judging.
The first E. Myles Standish Award for Scientific Principle goes to Myles Standish himself. E. Myles Standish's eminence in celestial mechanics is already internationally recognized. A leading pioneer in the establishment of numerical integration as the basis of national ephemerides, his orbits — computed by him and his colleagues at Cal Tech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory — have for decades reliably guided the world's ships & airplanes to their terrestrial ports, and NASA's craft to their celestial targets. The Standish Award reflects DIO's gratitude for Myles' lifetime of insisting on high standards of science and truth, and for his opposition to pretense in academe.
The first R. R. Newton Award for Scientific History goes to nonhistorian Charles T. Kowal (Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab), long a legendary living-immortal in astronomy, as discoverer of (among other objects) Chiron and two satellites of Jupiter. The specific historical discovery recognized by this Award is his recovery of Galileo's 1613 drawing of Neptune near Jupiter: perhaps the most shockingly outré discovery in the entire enterprise of astronomical history.
The DIO Awards are established as follows:
The E. Myles Standish Award for Scientific Principle.
Presented to a scholar who has excelled in the area of scientific principle by example, creativity, and-or analysis. Judges:
Stephen Brush, University of Maryland; President Emeritus, History of Science Society.
E. Myles Standish, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
Christopher Walker, Department of West Asian Antiquities, British Museum.
The R. R. Newton Award for Scientific History.
Presented for a discovery in which history is advanced by use of scientific analysis. Judges:
Rob't M. Bryce, Editor DIO, author of Cook&Peary: the Polar Controversy Resolved 1997.
Keith Pickering, author of biography of 1st North Pole-attainer by surface, Ralph Plaisted.
F. Richard Stephenson, Physics, University of Durham; International Astronomical Union, longtime #1 world expert on Earth's rotational acceleration.
The awarding of DIO prizes will henceforth be strictly up to the appointed panels, in order that evaluation of merit will be entirely out of DR's hands. The panels are also encouraged to consider & suggest improvements of the definitions of standards & principles, by which potential recipients will be judged.
By majority vote of the R. R. Newton Award committee:
the R. R. Newton Award for Scientific History has been granted to Steve Albers and to Gerd Graßhoff: $1000 each.
Steve Albers proposed the fruitful idea of consulting historical satellite-search ms records of then-known planets when near geocentric conjunction with then-unknown planets, to find unwitting observations of the latter — an idea that led to Charles Kowal's world-famous 1980 find of Galileo's 1613 Neptune sightings. Kowal's first-ever first-person story behind this forever-unique discovery is a DIO exclusive: DIO 15.
Overturning universal obliviousness (shared by RRN & DR),
Gerd Graßhoff created
(University of Hamburg 1986 thesis, English translation 1990, Springer)
the completely original, successful, and
project of demonstrating undeniable mass-statistical correlations of
star-position errors in Hipparchos' Commentary
& Ptolemy's Almajest .
(This study's instant conversion of Syntaxis editor
Gerald Toomer [to realization that Ptolemy had appropriated Hipparchos'
star catalog] is a credit both to Graßhoff and to Toomer.)
Graßhoff is also co-editor (with A.Stückelberger) of
the first complete modern-language critical edition
(2006) of Ptolemy's Geography; our admiration of and appreciation
for this monumental work may be consulted in the preface to
DIO 14 
Anyone is free to propose nominees or achievements, by simply sending
specifics to the appropriate panel of judges.
And anyone in the world is eligible for the awards. With one exception: DR.